1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a: –Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
Answer:-  The monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. It is important because agriculture in India is dependent on rains.

Question b:- Name the different seasons in India.
Answer:– The different seasons in India are:-

1. Cold weather season (winter)
2 Hot weather season (summer)
3.South west monsoon season (rainy)
4. Season of retreating monsoons (autumn)

Question c:What is natural vegetation?
Answer:– The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.

Question d:-  Name the different types of vegetation found in India.
Answer:- The different types of vegetation found in India are:

1. Tropical rain forests or evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Thorny bushes
4. Mountain vegetation
5. Mangrove forests

Question e:- What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
Answer:– Opposite of deciduous is known as evergreen where foliage persist throughout the entire year.
Deciduous trees are adapted to tolerate the cold and dry weather conditions by shedding their leaves seasonally, whereas evergreens do not.  Evergreens can survive under low nutrient levels in the soil. But a huge portion of internal nutrients is removed during the defoliation in deciduous trees. Nutrient requirement of evergreens is somewhat high during bad weather conditions due to need of the foliage maintenance. But in the case of deciduous plants it is high after the harsh time because of renewal of the foliage.
Deciduous plants are more sensitive to changes in temperature and rain fall than evergreen plants.

Question f:-  Why is tropical rain forest also called evergreen forest?
Answer :- The tropical rain forest is also called evergreen forest because trees in these forests shed their leaves at different times of the year. Therefore, it remains green throughout the year.

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) The world’s highest rainfall occurs in
(i) Mumbai
(ii) Asansol
Ans. (iii) Mawsynram

(b) Mangrove forests can thrive in
(i) saline water
(ii) fresh water
(iii) polluted water

(c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in
(i) mangrove forests
(ii) tropical deciduous forests
Ans. (iii) tropical evergreen forests

(d) Wild goats and snow leopards are found in
Ans. (i) Himalayan region
(ii) Peninsular region
(iii) Gir forests

(e) During the south west monsoon period, the moisture laden winds blow from
(i) land to sea
Ans. (ii) sea to land
(iii) plateau to plains

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) Hot and dry winds known as  loo   blow during the day in the summers.
(b) The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of  retreating monsoons.
(c) Gir  forest in Gujarat is the home of  Asiatic lions.
(d) Sundari  is a well-known species of mangrove forests.
(e) Tropic deciduous forest  are also called monsoon forests.



Chapter – 7 Our Country – India

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- Name the major physical divisions of India.
Answer:- The major physical divisions of India are:-
¤   The Northern Great Plains
¤  The Coastal Plains
¤  The Peninsular Plains
¤  The Islands

Question b:- India shares its land boundaries with seven countries. Name them.

India and its neighbouring countries

Answer:- The countries that share land boundaries with India are:-

1.  Afghanistan
2. Bangladesh
3. Bhutan
4. China
5. Pakistan
6. Nepal
7. Myanmar


Question c:- Which two major rivers fall into the Arabian Sea?
Answer:- Narmada and Tapti

Question d:Name the delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Answer:-  Sundarbans delta is formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

Question e:How many States and Union Territories are there in India? Which states have a common capital?
Answer:– There are 29 States and 7 Union Territories in India. The states of Haryana and Punjab have a common capital – Chandigarh.

Question f :- Why do a large number of people live in the Northern plains?
Answer:- Northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers- the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. These river plains provide fertile land for cultivation. Therefore, a large number of people live in the Northern plains.

Question g:- Why is Lakshadweep known as a coral island?
Answer:- Lakshdweep island is known as coral island because it has been made up of coral, which are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps. When the living polyps die, other polyps grow on top of their hard skeletons. They grow higher and higher and thus form coral islands.

2. Tick the correct answers.

a) The southernmost Himalayas are known as
Ans. (i) Shiwaliks
(ii) Himadri
(iii) Himachal

(b) Sahyadris is also known as
(i) Aravali
Ans. (ii) Western Ghats
(iii) Himadri

(c) The Palk Strait lies between the countries
(i) Sri Lanka and Maldives
Ans. (ii) India and Sri Lanka
(iii) India and Maldives

(d) The Indian islands in the Arabian Sea are known as
(i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Ans. (ii) Lakshadweep Islands
(iii) Maldives

(e) The oldest mountain range in India is the
Ans. (i) Aravali hills
(ii) Western ghats
(iii) Himalayas

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) India has an area of about  3.28 million sq. km.
(b) The Greater Himalayas are also known as Himadri.
(c) The largest state in India in terms of area is Rajashthan.
(d) The river Narmada falls into the Arabian sea.
(e) The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is  Tropic of Cancer.




1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- What are the major landforms?
Answer:-  The major landforms are: mountains, plateaus and plains. A mountain is any natural elevation of the Earth’s surface. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. A plateau is an elevated flat land.

Question b :- What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
Answer:-Difference between a mountain and a plateau



On the basis of elevation and the slope that gets formed, different landforms are classified as mountains, plateaus, or plains.

Mountain is any natural elevation of the surface of the earth.

Mountains are big and small and they may have very high summits or they may not be high. But one thing is common to all mountains and that is they are all considerably higher than surrounding area. There are mountains even higher than clouds.

As one goes up mountains, the climate becomes cooler. Some mountains have frozen rivers over them known as glaciers. Some mountains are under sea so that, they remain hidden and we cannot see them.

some of these are even higher than the highest ones on earth which is really surprising.

Mountains have steep slopes and present very littler land for farming. The climate is also harsh so they are not thickly populated.

A plateau is a flat land that has got elevation, and it is separate and distinct from the plains that surround such a land form.

A plateau looks like a large table made by nature on a flat land.

There are small as well as very high plateaus in the world with their height going up to thousands of meters.

Deccan plateau in India is considered to be the oldest plateau in the world. There are many other famous plateaus such as ones in Kenya, Tibet, Australia and many other countries.

Tibet plateau is highest with height ranging from 4000-6000 meters.

Plateaus are very useful for mankind as they are rich in mineral deposits.

Plateaus also have waterfalls occasionally.

Most of the plateaus of the world are known as scenic spots and are full of tourists all year long.


Question c:- What are the different types of mountains?
Answer:- There are three types of mountains are – Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Locate them on the world map in the atlas and find out some more examples of this type of landforms. Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.

Question d: How are mountains useful to man?
Answer:- Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like – gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like para-gliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.

Question e:- How are plains formed?
Answer:-  Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy. Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.

Question f :- Why are the river plains thickly populated?
Answer:- The river plains thickly populated as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.

Question g:- Why are mountains thinly populated?
Answer :- The mountains are thinly populated because of harsh climate. Also, the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.

2. Tick the correct answers

(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
Ans. (i) elevation
(ii) slope
(iii) aspect

(b) Glaciers are found in
Ans. (i) the mountains
(ii) the plains
(iii) the plateaus

(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in
(i) Kenya
(ii) Australia
Ans. (iii) India

(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America
(ii) Australia
Ans. (iii) China

(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
Ans. (i) the Andes
(ii) the Alps
(iii) the Rockies

3. Fill in the blanks.

1. A plain is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of fold types of mountains.
3.Plateau areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The range is a line of mountains.
5. The plain  areas are most productive for farming.




1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a: What are the four major domains of the earth?
Answer:- The four major domains of the Earth are: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Question b:- Name the major continents of the earth.
Answer:- The seven major continents of the Earth are: Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.

Question c:- Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
Answer:- The two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere are – Australia and South America.

Question d:- Name the different layers of atmosphere.

Answer:-The atmosphere is comprised of five layers based on temperature. These layers are the Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.

Layers of the Atmosphere

Question e:Why is the earth called the ‘blue planet’?
Answer:- Planet Earth has been called the “Blue Planet” due to the abundant water on its surface. Earth is comprised of 79% of water and rest in land surface.

Question f:Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the Land Hemisphere?
Answer:- The Northern Hemisphere is called the Land Hemisphere because the greater part of Earth’s landmass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.

Question g:- Why is the Biosphere important for living organisms?
Answer:– Biosphere is important for living organisms because it is termed as the zone of life on earth. The biosphere can also be referred to the zone of life on Earth. It cannot be affected by things such as solar and cosmic radiation, and is self-regulating.

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is
(i) the Andes
(ii) the Himalayas
Ans. (iii) the Urals

(b) The continent of North America is linked to South America by
Ans. (i) an Isthmus
(ii) a Strait
(iii) a Canal

(c) The major constituent of atmosphere by per cent is
Ans. (i) Nitrogen
(ii) Oxygen
(iii) Carbon dioxide

(d) The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocks is
(i) the Atmosphere
(ii) the Hydrosphere
Ans. (iii) the Lithosphere

(e) Which is the largest continent?
(i) Africa
Ans. (ii) Asia
(iii) Australia

3. Fill in the blanks

(a) The deepest point on the earth is  Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
(b) The Indian Ocean  Ocean is named after a country.
(c) The  Biosphere  is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that supports life.
(d) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as  Eurasia.
(e) The highest mountain peak on the earth is  Mt. Everest . (8,848 meters)


Chapter-4 Maps


Answer the following question

Question a:-What are the three components briefly. of a map?
Answer:- The three components of a map are – Distance, Direction & Symbol.

Question b:- What are the four cardinal directions?
Answer:- Cardinal Directions are the most commonly used forms of direction and they are North, South, East and West. The four equal divisions – Northeast, Southeast, Southwest and Northwest – are called Primary Inter-cardinal directions.

Question c:- What do you mean by the term ‘the scale of the map’?
Answer:- The scale of the map shows the actual distance as represented by one unit of measurement on the map. For example; if the scale of the map shows 1 cm = 10 km, this means 5 cm on the map is equal to 50 km in the real world.

Question d:- How are maps more helpful than a globe?
Answer:- A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole. But if we want to study only a part of the earth, e.g. a continent or a country, globe is not helpful. A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface. It gives more information than a globe.:

Question e:Distinguish between a map and a plan.
Answer:– A map is a visual representation of an area highlighting relationships between elements of that area such as objects, regions, and themes. Plans are a set of two-dimensional diagrams or drawings used to describe a place or an object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions.

Question f:- Which map provides detailed information?
Answer:- Large scale maps are the one that provide detailed information.

Question g:- How do symbols help in reading maps?
Answer:- It is not possible to draw actual shape and size of different features (like. buildings, roads, bridges) on a map, hence they are shown by using certain standard letters, shades, colors, pictures and lines. These symbols give a lot of information in a little space. Using these symbols, maps can be drawn easily. The use of symbols makes maps simple to read.

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) Maps showing distribution of forests are

(i) Physical map
Ans. (ii) Thematic Map
(iii) Political map

(b) The blue color is used for showing

Ans. (i) Water bodies
(ii) Mountains
(iii) Plains

(c) A compass is used –

(i) To show symbols
Ans. (ii) To find the main direction
(iii) To measure distance

(d) A scale is necessary

Ans. (i) For a map
(ii) For a sketch
(iii) For symbols




Chapter 3  Motions Of The Earth



Chapter-3 Motions Of The Earth

Chapter-3 Motions Of The Earth

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

 Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and Orbital Plane

Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and Orbital Plane

Question a:- What is the angle of inclination of the Earth’s axis with its orbital plane?

Answer :- The plane formed by the orbit is known as the orbital plane. The axis of Earth which is an imaginary line marks an angle of 66 1/2° with its orbital plane

Question b:- Define rotation and revolution.

Answer:- The Daily motion of the earth,  the earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation around its axis. The second of the earth around the sun in its orbital is called revolution it takes 365 1/4 days to complete one revolution

Question c:- What is a leap year?

Answer:– Every 4th-year February is 29 days instead of 28 days such a year with 366 days is called leap year, six hours save will be added to make a day.

Question d:- Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice.

Summer Solstice

It is the position of the earth when the rays of the sun fall directly on the tropic of cancer In the position, the north pole is tilted towards the sun. A larger portion of the northern hemisphere gets light from the sun hence it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere During this period in the northern hemisphere, days are longer than nights
Winter Solstice

It is the position of the earth when the rays of the sun fall directly on the tropic of Capricorn In this position, the north pole is tilted away from the sun A larger portion of the southern hemisphere gets light from the sun hence it is winter in the northern hemisphere During this period in the northern hemisphere, nights are longer than days

Question e:-  What is an equinox?

Answer:– It is the position of the earth where the direct rays of the sun fall on the equator at this position neither of the polls is tilted towards the sun so the earth experience equal days and nights This is called equinox

Question  f:Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice in different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere?

Answer:-  When the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun, the Northern Hemisphere experiences Summer Solstice. At this time, since the South Pole is tilted away from the Sun, the Southern Hemisphere experiences Winter Solstice.When the North Pole is tilted away from the Sun, the Northern Hemisphere experiences Winter Solstice. At this time, since the South Pole is tilted towards the sun, the Southern Hemisphere experiences Summer Solstice.

Question g:- Why do the Poles experience about six months day and six months night?

Answer:- The poles experience about 6 months days and six months of the night because of the tilt each pole is tilted towards and away from the sun for about six months each. When the north pole is tilted towards the sun it experiences continuous day and night for six months each. When the north pole is tilted towards the sun it experiences continuous day and night for six months it is the night for the same pole is tilted towards the sun

2: Tick the correct answers

(a) The movement of the Earth around the Sun is known as
(i) rotation

Ans. (ii) Revolution

(iii) Inclination

(b) Direct rays of the sun fall on the equator on

Ans. (i) 21 March 

(ii) June

(iii) 22 December

(c) Christmas is celebrated in summer in

(i) Japan

(ii) India

Ans. (iii) Australia

(d)  Cycle of seasons is caused due to

(i) Rotation

Ans. (ii) Revolution

(iii) Gravitation

3: Fill in the blanks.

(a) A leap year has  366   number of days.

(b) The daily motion of the Earth is rotation .

(c) The Earth travels around the Sun in  elliptical orbit.

(d) The Sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of  cancer on 21st June.

(e) Days are shorter during  winter season





1: Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:What is the true shape of the Earth?
Answer:- Earth is not a sphere it is slightly flattened at the north and south pole and bulge in the middle.

Question b:What is a globe?
Answer:- Globe is a true model (Miniature form) of Earth. The globe is not fixed. It can be rotated the same way as a topspin or a potter’s wheel is rotated. On the globe countries and continents and oceans are shown in their correct size

Question c: What is the latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer?
Answer:- The latitudinal value of tropic of cancer is 23 1/2° North in the Northern Hemisphere.

Question d:What are the three heat zones of the Earth?
Answer:- There are three types of heat zones in the Earth they are, Torrid Zone Temperature zone, Frigid zone.

Question e:- What are the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitudes?
Answer: All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes.  The lines of reference running from the north pole are called meridians of longitudes.

Question f: Why does the Torrid Zone receive the maximum amount of heat?
Answer:- The area between tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn The midday sun is exactly overhead at least once in a year on all latitudes in this area receives the maximum amount of heat

Question g:- Why is it 5.30 P.M. in India and 12.00 noon in London?
Answer:-  In India, the longitude of 821/2° E (82° 30E) is treated as the standard meridian. The local time at this meridian. The local time at this meridian is taken as the standard meridian for the whole country. It is known as the Indian Standard Time (IST) India located east of Greenwich at 82° 30E in 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT so it will be 5:30 in India when it is 2 noon in London

Ckick Here :- chapter- 1 The Earth in the Solar System

Important Latitudes and Heat Zones


2: Tick the correct answers.

(a) The value of the Prime Meridian is
(i) 90°
Ans:- (ii) 0°
(iii) 60°

(b) The frigid Zone lies near
(i) the Poles
Ans:- (ii) The equator
(iii) The tropic of Cancer

(c) The total number of longitudes are                                         
Ans:- (i) 360
(ii) 180
(iii) 90

(d) The Antarctic Circle is located in
(i) The Northern Hemisphere
Ans:- (ii) the Southern Hemisphere
(iii) The Eastern Hemisphere

(e) A grid is a network of
Ans:- (i) Parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes
(ii) The tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn
(iii) The North Pole and the South Pole.

3: Fill in the blanks.

(a) The Tropic of Capricorn is located at 23 1/2° S in the southern Hemisphere.
(b) The Standard Meridian of India is 82 1/2 ° E (82° 30E).
(c) The 0° Meridian is also known as Greenwich Meridian.
(d) The distance between the longitudes decreases towards Poles.
(e) The Arctic Circle is located in the Northern Hemisphere.


Chapter-1 The Earth in the Solar System

Chapter-1 The Earth in the Solar System

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- How does a planet differ from a star?
Answer:- Planet differs from star in the following manner: Planet does not have its own light while star emits their own light. Planet revolves around a star while star does not revolve around any celestial bodies. Planet does not twinkle while star does.

Questions b:- What is meant by the ‘Solar System’?
Answer:- The system formed by the sun, eight planets, satellites, asteroids and various other celestial bodies is called the Solar System.

Question c:– Name all the planets according to their distance from the sun.
Answer:- Planets according to their distance from the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Questions d:– Why is the Earth called a unique planet?
Answer:- Conditions favourable to support life are probably present only on Earth. The Earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has water and air, which are very essentialfor our survival. The air has life-supporting gases like oxygen. Because of thesereasons, the Earth is a unique planet in the solar system.

Question e:- Why do we see only one side of the moon always?
Answer:- The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. Therefore, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth.

Question f :– What is the Universe ?
Answer :- A galaxy is a huge system of billions of stars, and clouds of dust and gases.  Millions of such galaxies make up the universe.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(a) The planet known as the “Earth’s Twin” is
(i) Jupiter
(ii) Saturn
Ans:- (iii) Venus

(b) Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ?
(i) Venus
Ans:- (ii) Earth
(iii) Mercury

(c) All the planets move around the sun in a
(i) Circular path
(ii) Rectangular path
Ans:- (iii) Elongated path

(d) The Pole Star indicates the direction to the
(i) South
Ans:-(ii) North
(iii) East

(e) Asteroids are found between the orbits of
(i) Saturn and Jupiter
Ans:- (ii) Mars and Jupiter
(iii) The Earth and Mars

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) A group of stars forming various patterns is called a constellation .
(b) A huge system of stars is called galaxy .
(c) The Moon is the closest celestial body to our earth.
(d)Earth is the third nearest planet to the sun.
(e) Planets do not have their own heat and light .