1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a: -Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
Answer:-  The monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. It is important because agriculture in India is dependent on rains.
Question b:- Name the different seasons in India.
Answer:– The different seasons in India are:-
1. Cold weather season (winter)
2 Hot weather season (summer)
3.South west monsoon season (rainy)
4. Season of retreating monsoons (autumn)
Question c:What is natural vegetation?
Answer:– The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.
Question d:-  Name the different types of vegetation found in India.
Answer:- The different types of vegetation found in India are:
1. Tropical rain forests or evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Thorny bushes
4. Mountain vegetation
5. Mangrove forests

Question e:- What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
Answer:– Opposite of deciduous is known as evergreen where foliage persist throughout the entire year.
Deciduous trees are adapted to tolerate the cold and dry weather conditions by shedding their leaves seasonally, whereas evergreens do not.  Evergreens can survive under low nutrient levels in the soil. But a huge portion of internal nutrients is removed during the defoliation in deciduous trees. Nutrient requirement of evergreens is somewhat high during bad weather conditions due to need of the foliage maintenance. But in the case of deciduous plants it is high after the harsh time because of renewal of the foliage.
Deciduous plants are more sensitive to changes in temperature and rain fall than evergreen plants.

Question f:-  Why is tropical rain forest also called evergreen forest?
Answer :- The tropical rain forest is also called evergreen forest because trees in these forests shed their leaves at different times of the year. Therefore, it remains green throughout the year.

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) The world’s highest rainfall occurs in
(i) Mumbai
(ii) Asansol
Ans. (iii) Mawsynram
(b) Mangrove forests can thrive in
(i) saline water
(ii) fresh water
(iii) polluted water
(c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in
(i) mangrove forests
(ii) tropical deciduous forests
Ans. (iii) tropical evergreen forests
(d) Wild goats and snow leopards are found in
Ans. (i) Himalayan region
(ii) Peninsular region
(iii) Gir forests
(e) During the south west monsoon period, the moisture laden winds blow from
(i) land to sea
Ans. (ii) sea to land
(iii) plateau to plains

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) Hot and dry winds known as  loo   blow during the day in the summers.
(b) The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of  retreating monsoons.
(c) Gir  forest in Gujarat is the home of  Asiatic lions.
(d) Sundari  is a well-known species of mangrove forests.
(e) Tropic deciduous forest  are also called monsoon forests.





Chapter – 7 Our Country – India

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- Name the major physical divisions of India.
Answer:- The major physical divisions of India are:-
¤   The Northern Great Plains
¤  The Coastal Plains
¤  The Peninsular Plains
¤  The Islands

Question b:- India shares its land boundaries with seven countries. Name them.

India and its neighbouring countries

Answer:- The countries that share land boundaries with India are:-

1.  Afghanistan
2. Bangladesh
3. Bhutan
4. China
5. Pakistan
6. Nepal
7. Myanmar


Question c:- Which two major rivers fall into the Arabian Sea?
Answer:- Narmada and Tapti

Question d:Name the delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Answer:-  Sundarbans delta is formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

Question e:How many States and Union Territories are there in India? Which states have a common capital?
Answer:– There are 29 States and 7 Union Territories in India. The states of Haryana and Punjab have a common capital – Chandigarh.

Question f :- Why do a large number of people live in the Northern plains?
Answer:- Northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers- the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. These river plains provide fertile land for cultivation. Therefore, a large number of people live in the Northern plains.

Question g:- Why is Lakshadweep known as a coral island?
Answer:- Lakshdweep island is known as coral island because it has been made up of coral, which are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps. When the living polyps die, other polyps grow on top of their hard skeletons. They grow higher and higher and thus form coral islands.

2. Tick the correct answers.

a) The southernmost Himalayas are known as
Ans. (i) Shiwaliks
(ii) Himadri
(iii) Himachal

(b) Sahyadris is also known as
(i) Aravali
Ans. (ii) Western Ghats
(iii) Himadri

(c) The Palk Strait lies between the countries
(i) Sri Lanka and Maldives
Ans. (ii) India and Sri Lanka
(iii) India and Maldives

(d) The Indian islands in the Arabian Sea are known as
(i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Ans. (ii) Lakshadweep Islands
(iii) Maldives

(e) The oldest mountain range in India is the
Ans. (i) Aravali hills
(ii) Western ghats
(iii) Himalayas

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) India has an area of about  3.28 million sq. km.
(b) The Greater Himalayas are also known as Himadri.
(c) The largest state in India in terms of area is Rajashthan.
(d) The river Narmada falls into the Arabian sea.
(e) The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is  Tropic of Cancer.




1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- What are the major landforms?
Answer:-  The major landforms are: mountains, plateaus and plains. A mountain is any natural elevation of the Earth’s surface. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. A plateau is an elevated flat land.

Question b :- What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
Answer:-Difference between a mountain and a plateau



On the basis of elevation and the slope that gets formed, different landforms are classified as mountains, plateaus, or plains.

Mountain is any natural elevation of the surface of the earth.

Mountains are big and small and they may have very high summits or they may not be high. But one thing is common to all mountains and that is they are all considerably higher than surrounding area. There are mountains even higher than clouds.

As one goes up mountains, the climate becomes cooler. Some mountains have frozen rivers over them known as glaciers. Some mountains are under sea so that, they remain hidden and we cannot see them.

some of these are even higher than the highest ones on earth which is really surprising.

Mountains have steep slopes and present very littler land for farming. The climate is also harsh so they are not thickly populated.

A plateau is a flat land that has got elevation, and it is separate and distinct from the plains that surround such a land form.

A plateau looks like a large table made by nature on a flat land.

There are small as well as very high plateaus in the world with their height going up to thousands of meters.

Deccan plateau in India is considered to be the oldest plateau in the world. There are many other famous plateaus such as ones in Kenya, Tibet, Australia and many other countries.

Tibet plateau is highest with height ranging from 4000-6000 meters.

Plateaus are very useful for mankind as they are rich in mineral deposits.

Plateaus also have waterfalls occasionally.

Most of the plateaus of the world are known as scenic spots and are full of tourists all year long.


Question c:- What are the different types of mountains?
Answer:- There are three types of mountains are – Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Locate them on the world map in the atlas and find out some more examples of this type of landforms. Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.

Question d: How are mountains useful to man?
Answer:- Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like – gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like para-gliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.

Question e:- How are plains formed?
Answer:-  Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy. Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.

Question f :- Why are the river plains thickly populated?
Answer:- The river plains thickly populated as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.

Question g:- Why are mountains thinly populated?
Answer :- The mountains are thinly populated because of harsh climate. Also, the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.

2. Tick the correct answers

(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
Ans. (i) elevation
(ii) slope
(iii) aspect

(b) Glaciers are found in
Ans. (i) the mountains
(ii) the plains
(iii) the plateaus

(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in
(i) Kenya
(ii) Australia
Ans. (iii) India

(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America
(ii) Australia
Ans. (iii) China

(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
Ans. (i) the Andes
(ii) the Alps
(iii) the Rockies

3. Fill in the blanks.

1. A plain is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of fold types of mountains.
3.Plateau areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The range is a line of mountains.
5. The plain  areas are most productive for farming.




1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a: What are the four major domains of the earth?
Answer:- The four major domains of the Earth are: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Question b:- Name the major continents of the earth.
Answer:- The seven major continents of the Earth are: Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.

Question c:- Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
Answer:- The two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere are – Australia and South America.

Question d:- Name the different layers of atmosphere.

Answer:-The atmosphere is comprised of five layers based on temperature. These layers are the Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.

Layers of the Atmosphere

Question e:Why is the earth called the ‘blue planet’?
Answer:- Planet Earth has been called the “Blue Planet” due to the abundant water on its surface. Earth is comprised of 79% of water and rest in land surface.

Question f:Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the Land Hemisphere?
Answer:- The Northern Hemisphere is called the Land Hemisphere because the greater part of Earth’s landmass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.

Question g:- Why is the Biosphere important for living organisms?
Answer:– Biosphere is important for living organisms because it is termed as the zone of life on earth. The biosphere can also be referred to the zone of life on Earth. It cannot be affected by things such as solar and cosmic radiation, and is self-regulating.

2. Tick the correct answers.

(a) The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is
(i) the Andes
(ii) the Himalayas
Ans. (iii) the Urals

(b) The continent of North America is linked to South America by
Ans. (i) an Isthmus
(ii) a Strait
(iii) a Canal

(c) The major constituent of atmosphere by per cent is
Ans. (i) Nitrogen
(ii) Oxygen
(iii) Carbon dioxide

(d) The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocks is
(i) the Atmosphere
(ii) the Hydrosphere
Ans. (iii) the Lithosphere

(e) Which is the largest continent?
(i) Africa
Ans. (ii) Asia
(iii) Australia

3. Fill in the blanks

(a) The deepest point on the earth is  Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
(b) The Indian Ocean  Ocean is named after a country.
(c) The  Biosphere  is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that supports life.
(d) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as  Eurasia.
(e) The highest mountain peak on the earth is  Mt. Everest . (8,848 meters)


Chapter-1 The Earth in the Solar System

Chapter-1 The Earth in the Solar System

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question a:- How does a planet differ from a star?
Answer:- Planet differs from star in the following manner: Planet does not have its own light while star emits their own light. Planet revolves around a star while star does not revolve around any celestial bodies. Planet does not twinkle while star does.

Questions b:- What is meant by the ‘Solar System’?
Answer:- The system formed by the sun, eight planets, satellites, asteroids and various other celestial bodies is called the Solar System.

Question c:– Name all the planets according to their distance from the sun.
Answer:- Planets according to their distance from the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Questions d:– Why is the Earth called a unique planet?
Answer:- Conditions favourable to support life are probably present only on Earth. The Earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has water and air, which are very essentialfor our survival. The air has life-supporting gases like oxygen. Because of thesereasons, the Earth is a unique planet in the solar system.

Question e:- Why do we see only one side of the moon always?
Answer:- The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. Therefore, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth.

Question f :– What is the Universe ?
Answer :- A galaxy is a huge system of billions of stars, and clouds of dust and gases.  Millions of such galaxies make up the universe.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(a) The planet known as the “Earth’s Twin” is
(i) Jupiter
(ii) Saturn
Ans:- (iii) Venus

(b) Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ?
(i) Venus
Ans:- (ii) Earth
(iii) Mercury

(c) All the planets move around the sun in a
(i) Circular path
(ii) Rectangular path
Ans:- (iii) Elongated path

(d) The Pole Star indicates the direction to the
(i) South
Ans:-(ii) North
(iii) East

(e) Asteroids are found between the orbits of
(i) Saturn and Jupiter
Ans:- (ii) Mars and Jupiter
(iii) The Earth and Mars

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) A group of stars forming various patterns is called a constellation .
(b) A huge system of stars is called galaxy .
(c) The Moon is the closest celestial body to our earth.
(d)Earth is the third nearest planet to the sun.
(e) Planets do not have their own heat and light .